The biceps femoris travels along three joints, from the hip joint to the patella (stifle joint) and down to the calcaneous bone near the tarsus. It is the largest muscle of the leg and is covering dorsally most of the muscle space on the cat's leg. It is labeled number 1 in this [[#|picture]] (it's cut off in the picture as well, but this is the most accurate picture I could [[#|find]]. Refer to the word document on this [[#|website]] with links to other [[#|websites]] if you want a better picture).



biceps_femoris.jpg


Action:
Both heads flexes and rotates knee. Since the long head originates in the pelvis it is also involved in hip extension.

Origin -
Tuberosity of the ischium
Lower 1/2 of the linea aspera of the femur
Lateral supracondylar ridge

Insertion -
Lateral condyle of the tibia, Head of the fibula

Strengthening -
At Home Exercise for Biceps Femoris:
To strengthen and stretch the biceps femoris. Perform a 90 degree leg lift. Lying with your back comfortably flat on your yoga mat. Start with both legs bent, straighten one leg onto the mat while slowly lifting the other leg with the exercise band wrapped around the sole of your foot. Lift as close to a 90 degree angle that you can get by keeping your back and other leg as flat to the ground as possible. Hold the position for up to a minute. Repeat exercise three times, and do the other side.

Hamstring Curl:
Lay on your back on the floor with the heels on the ball and arms on the floor.
Lift your buttocks up off the floor.
Roll the ball in towards you by bending your knees and hips until your knees are directly above your hips.
Straighten the legs again by pushing the ball away, lower the buttocks back to the floor.

Squat:
Stand with your feet shoulder width apart and toes pointing straight forward
Keep the back straight as you initiate movement at your hips
[[#|Push]] your buttocks out behind you and bend your knees
Do not let your knees move in front of your toes'
Do not squat deeper than a 90 degree (right angle) at the knee
[[#|Start]] with shallow squats and increase gradually
Return to the starting position

Lunges:
Use a dumbbell in each hand
[[#|Step]] forward with one foot in a long stride
Make sure your feet are in line and pointing straight forward
Keep your back upright as you slowly bend and lower the back knee towards the floor, raising the heel off the floor
At the same time bend the front knee, making sure it doesn't go past your toes
Don't let the back knee touch the floor before returning to the starting position

Rehabilitation -
Decreasing Pain and Inflammation - Rest from aggravating exercises, avoid any form of exercise that may make the injury worse. You should rest until the acute stage has passed, if you continue to use the tendon then it may remain acute for longer. Apply ice/cold therapy, at least 3 times a day for 15 minutes. Wear a knee support or heat retainer, Heat may be applied after the acute stage but up until then, apply cold therapy.

Stretching and Restoring Flexibility - Hamstring stretches can be done from day one so long as they are not painful. If stretching produces pain then rest until stretching can be done without pain. Hold stretches for 30 seconds and repeat the stretch 5 times. Stretch everyday (if it is pain free), stretching exercises should be done with the leg rotated inwards and again with the leg rotated outwards. Sports massage can play an important part in restoring flexibility and enhancing the healing process. Massage can begin after the initial acute stage, usually after the first 48 hours.

Interesting/Fun Facts -
Like he biceps in the arm, the bicep femoris splits into two heads, The short head of the muscle is absent in some people.
Although there are two parts to the biceps femoris, only the long head bicep femoris is a part of the hamstring muscle group. The short head bicep femoris is involved in the flexion of the knee joint.