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The kidneys filter blood to take waste from the blood and excrete it from the body. They are located on the lateral sides of the body dorsally. They are located retroperitoneally, which means they are not covered in the same peritoneum covering as other organs in the abdomen.
Here is a picture of the right kidney. The left kidney (not seen here) has the caudate lobe of the liver sitting on top of it (cranially) and so the caudate lobe of the liver has a perminant indention for the kidney to sit in.
Here are some diagrams of the kidney to help you understand its inner parts
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